Sunday, August 18, 2019

Problems with Racism



The problem with race and words related to race is the lack of a precise meaning and the attachment of strong emotions to certain terms like racist.

We can turn to dictionary definitions to find out how people generally use the words, but there will still be local applications that are far from what academics mean. Racist and racism mean different things, but it is certainly an insult in a democracy.

Race and Links to the past
Before the 20th century, scientists thought there were different races of human beings. People used to believe humans could be identified by race based on physical characteristics and people believed that traits like personality, intelligence, and morality were the result of their race.

The problem is, it is difficult to make a case for different races of human beings. Surface differences like shapes of facial features and skin color are not scientifically linked to traits like personality, intelligence, and so forth.

Besides, it is common knowledge that two people in love who have different physical appearances, mate and produce offspring who share characteristics of both parents. It doesn’t take a lot of pairings before many people have a mixed heritage.

Racism
Nowadays, racism refers to negative actions toward people considered to be of a different race. The negative actions include prejudice, discrimination, and antagonism. See for example lexico.com.

Racist
Calling someone a racist is an insult and usually means that a person has a pattern of acting in a prejudicial, discriminatory, or antagonistic way toward people of another race. Racists view their group as superior to groups labeled as of a different race.

One problem with the word racist is that human beings are often wary of people who do not look like they belong to the same group. Groups can be defined by skin color, but they can also be defined by cultural markers like languages, foods, clothes, and religions.

Another problem is the failure to consider ranges of beliefs and subtleties. People use the word racist as if it is an all-or-nothing thing. It isn’t all-or-nothing. Extremists make it look like all-or-nothing, but nonextremists may still hold less extreme beliefs that can make a difference if they are in a position to make laws, policies, and decisions about hiring, serving, or treating other human beings who look or appear different than people from their usual group.

Context
In the United States, race is often defined in terms of black and white–an obvious reference to skin color. Sometimes another race includes people identified as brown. Sometimes race refers to the perceived continent of origin like Africa, Asia, or Europe. If you live elsewhere, you may have different ways people refer to races.


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What Matters?

Fairness. In a nation or organization, the principle of fairness, usually considered as equality, is germane to peaceful relationships between people who appear to be from different groups. It is difficult, though not impossible, to change attitudes, but it is possible to enforce laws that require the equal treatment of all human beings when it comes to the benefits and punishments present in laws and policies.
Unfair treatment breeds discontent and even violence.

Language. The language of leaders also matters.

Leaders can use insults to “paint targets on the backs”
of people they do not like.

Leaders insult groups of people based on where they live, where they came from, or other characteristics that make it seem that the disgusting behavior of a few people from a certain place, or having a certain characteristic is true of others from the same place or having the same characteristic. Leaders can inspire people to greatness or terrorism.

Integrity. Let’s be straightforward. When leaders attack a few people, who acted in a deplorable way as if all people who are like those bad actors are also deplorables or less than human, society has a problem. People will be divided and fear those who look like bad actors. Integrity means refusing to suggest that all people who look like a criminal or “bad actor” is just as bad.

Vigilance. It will take strong opposition leaders to attack the language (not the person) who seeks to divide people into preferred and not preferred groups. Social leaders who care about living in a peaceful and nonviolent society will need to constantly speak out against attempts to divide people based on rhetoric that identifies certain groups of people as targets and simultaneously engenders hatred toward those targeted people. Free speech is of critical importance to a just society.

A free press is vital to bringing cases of discrimination and injustice to the public. However, one must also fight against both an over-zealous press and poorly informed writers on one hand and powerful leaders who discount carefully researched press reports on the other hand. Just societies will always need alternative voices from vigilant people.

Groupishness. Human beings constantly form special ingroups and reject some people who are by default in an outgroup. Any progress in racism won’t solve the problem of human nature in other areas of a culture. Sexism, genderism, ageism, ableism, ethnocentrism, and other "isms" are among the ways people band together and make life better for themselves at the expense of another group. Even in societies that purport to offer liberty and justice for all, enforceable laws have been important to protect the rights of certain minorities. Sadly, if your group is not listed as a protected group in law, you might not be able to count on justice or fairness. Of course, even if a minority group is listed as protected, it does not mean they will be protected when no one is looking.

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Tuesday, August 6, 2019

Prayers and Thoughts Take A Hit


Prayers and thoughts have taken a hit lately.  In the wake of mass shootings in the US, I see more and more social media posts decrying the use of "prayers and thoughts" as if it were a meaningless phrase that substitutes for inaction.

Is there any evidence that prayer is helpful? 

That's hard to say unless you define what you mean by helpful. Clearly, whatever prayers have been offered, shooters continue to kill and injure many in the US and elsewhere. 

Believers in the effectiveness of prayer won't stop praying. People do report feeling better after praying. And believers who are the recipient of such messages often take comfort in knowing they are supported in prayer. For one thing, it's a reminder they are not alone.

Does prayer lead to inaction? 

Maybe. A study by Tyler Greenway, Sarah Schnitker, and Abigail Shepherd examined the relationship between praying and generosity. Here's a quote from their summary (2017).


Christian participants (N = 313) were assigned to engage in either intercessory prayer or a secular reflection over a 2-week period on the hardships faced by either Christians (religious ingroup) or Muslims (religious outgroup) in Myanmar/Burma being persecuted by the Buddhist majority. Contrary to hypotheses and previous research, multiple regression analyses revealed that the prayer condition was associated with less monetary generosity than a nonreligious control condition. (See the Abstract)
I realize of course that the researchers studied generosity and not action related to ending mass shootings; however, the study does illustrate the possibility that prayer may be a substitute for less concrete action. As is often said in academia, "more research is needed."

Do Christian survivors appreciate "thoughts and prayers?"
Perhaps it's complicated even for those who believe in prayer. Taylor Schumann is a survivor of a shooting. Writing in Christianity Today, she expresses a sensitivity to the phrase, "thoughts and prayers."
Like many others affected by gun violence, I can’t help but feel frustrated and cynical when I hear another line about “thoughts and prayers.”
However, she expresses a belief in the power of prayer and offers suggestions on what to pray. This leads to a research question, would social media comments be taken as more meaningful if the posts said how the poster was praying for the survivors and their families? This can be turned into a study--any takers?

What can we learn from Schumann?
One of my interests is in the psychology of religion. What I appreciate about Schumann's article is the prayer list. The list reveals a blow by blow flow of the path from shooting victim to shooting survivor. It's like a prayer for different stations of the cross borne by survivors. We get a sense of the enduring psychological trauma, social issues, and medical-biological struggles that can be a part of recovery.

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Does identity take a hit too?
Our identities are multiple and varied in importance. I wonder what happens to those injured shooting survivors who were strongly against gun control before they were shot. 

Owning guns and enjoying recreational use of guns is a part of the identity of many people. Attacking gun ownership is like attacking a person. It is a useless strategy designed only to strengthen the resolve of those who insist on their right to own a variety of weapons.

The idea of guns and identity has been articulated by a unique Presbyterian Minister, Rev. Deanna Hollis--she's the first minister of gun violence prevention. And she has some thoughts on what churches can do--worth a read (NYT).

Does faith take a hit too?
Imagine devout Christians who believe in the power of prayer, the belief that God is in control, and miracles of healing. They enter their cars and begin a journey with a prayer for God's protection. They walk into a store. All hell breaks loose. Bullets are flying. They take a hit. They're down, in pain, bleeding, looking up at the ceiling of an ambulance.

What's not evident in Schumann's article is a sense of a deep spiritual struggle. Clearly, many rely on their faith as they recover from any trauma. However, some lose faith or struggle with faith and the beliefs about God, security and protection. Terri Daniel addresses some of this in the article, "Losing Faith vs. Gaining Perspective: How Trauma and Loss Can Create a More Spacious Form of Spiritual Awareness."


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Saturday, May 11, 2019

Happy Mother$ Day USA $hoppers$



Will you get your fair share of the $25 billion Americans spend on mother's day this year? Talk about inflation, the expected 2019 increase is expected to be up 8% over last year. Who got even a 4% raise? And our government says inflation is under control!

You might guess it's a big week for flower sales. 1-800-Flowers.com takes in over $71,000,000 in Mother's Day sales! My mother complained about the quality when I ordered flowers online--I don't recall what company I used. She was happier when I got her a plant from a local discount retailer.

Did you plan ahead for a seat at her favorite restaurant? The NRA expects 87,000,000 people to eat at a restaurant for Mother's Day (NRA = National Restaurant Association, I thought I should clear that up).

According to Zillow, nearly 22% of Americans age 23-27 still live with their mothers. I wonder how that's working out.

What about women without children? Hallmark hasn't left them out. At least if they have a pet dog, you can buy a card "from the dog."

When it comes to mother's day spending, it's the third biggest event of the retailer's year--after the Christmas season and back-to-school sales.

My source for lots of the amazing data is James Peltz in the LA Times- see his article for more insights (10 May 2019).

I got my wife tulips-one of her favorite flowers but I couldn't find teal colored ones at my discount retailer. Teal is her favorite color. I did get her a fancy card, but I won't show you in case she reads my blog.

Like many of my age, my mother is gone. I can't help remembering her though. In addition to all the buzz, her birthday was 12 May, which happens to be mother's day this year as it often was in years past. I had a mother for over 60 years, but my wife didn't. I think about that too. It's important to honor those we love while we have them around.

I hope some mother's would be happy if their children or grandchildren paid a visit or made a phone call. Being ignored is probably one of the worst things to do. Still, managing expectations can be challenging when Big Business is out to capitalize on this day of honor.

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Monday, May 6, 2019

Rachel Held Evans An Exciting Testimony of Deconversion



Testimonies used to be popular in conservative Christian churches several decades ago. People stood and retold the story of their conversion from sin to faith. Pentecostals told stories of healing. Some told of their conversion from a different faith to their current Christian faith.

Stories of deconversion often involve conversion and follow a familiar narrative consisting of a person's struggle with their old faith, doubt and possible loss of faith, grief over the loss of faith and a faith family, and for some, joy at their new found faith. Deconversion is the term behavioral scientists use when studying how a person's conversion story unravels. That is, the process of leaving a faith group. 

Some leave their faith and become a none—a person of no faith, or no particular faith. Others leave one faith for another faith. (Read more about deconversion, 2017.)

Rachel held Evans has a deconversion-conversion story. She’s the girl from monkey town whose testimony resonated with so many. She died the other day at the young age of 37. Here’s how she phrased her deconversion (2016):

I eventually left evangelicalism when it became clear that the fight was wearing me down, with little promise of change, especially as it concerned my LGBT friends and neighbors. After a few years of wilderness wandering (you should expect that, by the way---look for the manna; look for the water from rock), I found myself in the Episcopal Church, which is no less riddled with conflict and shortcomings than any other Christian tradition, but which introduced me to the sacraments that have managed to sustain my ever-complicated, ever-faltering faith. 

I’m telling you this because I want you to know there is life after evangelicalism. 

Rachel testified of her struggles in monkey town—that Tennessee town famous for the Scopes Monkey Trial (2009). Like many bright young people for 160 years (Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1959), she evolved in her thinking about creation and evolution, which stood as a proxy battle for conservative Christian teachings about the Bible or derived from the Bible.

Rachel’s testimony validated the concerns of those youth who grew up with rigid beliefs warning about sexual immorality and impurity, abortion, and identifying as LGBT.

Testimonies seem to have disappeared from evangelical services along with Sunday evening and Wednesday night services—or at least the guilt induced obligation to attend.  One might wonder about why this occurred. I suspect people have different ideas to explain the change. An online site tells how to tell a testimony in 2-3 minutes—that’s longer than any TV commercial but shorter than many an old-time testimony. And some of the faithful retold the same very old story—they did not know you should only do this at family gatherings. I’m sure there are other reasons.

Unfortunately, some testimonies were only meaningful to the speaker. In vibrant contrast, Rachel’s testimony connected with so many lives. It even stood up to the test of repetition. Her words sounded like truth—or at least an authentic life—one where hypocrisy doesn’t mar the view.

Sometimes testimonies could be funny. I remember when a few of us went to an evening service to check out the girls at a Christian college. We couldn’t stop laughing at the testimony of one young man who stood tall and expressed thanks that God healed him of testicular pain when he raised his hand in praise, which he did. Perhaps it’s only funny to those of us who grew up in an era when talk about anything connected with sex was taboo in church. In those days, matters that might be connected with sex were put forth as “unspoken prayer requests” or if there was a crisis, it was called a “special unspoken.”

A few days ago, before Rachel died, David French wrote an article in the National Review about the problem with Christian testimony (aka witness). He spoke about the “high cost” of the loss of evangelical witness linked to Franklin Graham (25 April 2019). French is tough on Graham over his zealous mix of faith and politics. Here’s a quote form the opening to French's essay:

“Graham’s willingness to abandon Christian principles when it’s politically expedient has cost the church dearly.”

I think French over-estimates the cost attributed to Graham’s episodic attacks on politicians and Christian leaders who interpret texts differently. It turns out, the cost has been ongoing as documented by Barna's research, which was 11 years before French. Ironically, The Billy Graham Evangelistic Association published a review of the book, UnChristian in 2008. The book provides data challenging the evangelical church for several practices identified by Barna research as disconcerting to younger generations. An opening line from the Graham review identified six negative appraisals of Christianity: “Judgmental. Antihomosexual. Hypocritical. Too political. Sheltered. Proselytizing. Do you realize these are the words your non-Christian friends use to describe you?”

Rachel Held Evans appeared as the face of a movement away from unchristian beliefs and practices. Her books and blog posts tell the tale of disenchantment but offer a way to still be Christian.

Rachel’s testimony appeared to bring relief to many a young Christian who struggled with one tenet or another of their Christian faith. Many of us from an older generation went through the same struggles but did not know many others sharing a similar experience. 

Doubt was taboo or even sinful. 

Some of my friends who are atheists, agnostics, or universalists still hide their religious or spiritual identities out of fear—not fear of the supernatural mind you, but fear of Christians and their ire. They remain in a closet like some of my friends who identify as LGBT. I think there are a lot of Christians in closets. 

Fortunately for so many, Rachel Held Evans came out of the religious closet.

Rachel's writings serve as a bridge to spiritual freedom. Christian young people found they could give up one form of faith and replace it with a different form of that faith without denying their Christian identity. For some, this change of faith is like a spiritual conversion. A sense of freedom wells up within a soul when a meaningful life comes into focus.

*****
Learn more about conservative and progressive Christian views on matters of sex and morality in A House Divided: Christianity, Sexuality, and Christian Cultures available from PICKWICK Publications  and many bookstores around the world.














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Friday, April 19, 2019

Whipping Jesus and Crowd Psychology






Amidst the many lessons that clergy will share between Palm Sunday and Easter Sunday, are timeless stories of human nature. The gospel narratives tell the story of Jesus' purpose driven death, but we also see the role of the crowds and societal leaders in killing Jesus, the author of the Christian faith.

Whipping up the Crowd

On Palm Sunday, a crowd in Jerusalem welcomed Jesus as their king. The crowds were enthusiastic. On Good Friday, a crowd welcomes a political revolutionary (Barabbas) and calls for the death of Jesus. According to Mark, the religious leaders “stirred up the crowd.” The governor, Pilate, recognized what was happening and bowed to the demands of the crowd’s request, “crucify him.” The crowd secured the death penalty and the political rulers whipped and mocked the “King of the Jews.”

Whipping People

Effective leaders know the power of crowds to effect change. Jesus was a clear and present danger to the way of life for the religious leaders and the political leaders of his day. Whipping up crowds can be a dangerous ploy. In the case of the leaders in Jerusalem, only a few years passed until the empire struck back.

Today, religious and political leaders continue to manipulate crowds to advance their agendas. They take aim at anyone who is a perceived threat—they create “whipping boys and girls”. The sad thing is, crafty leaders can create a narrative to turn relatively harmless people into a threat by distorting their narratives. Like infants, crowds are easily distracted by a new stimulus, thus one need only wait a few hours or days until a new target appears in the media—a whipping boy or girl.

Whipping up Violence

It is abundantly clear that powerful religious leaders and politicians are capable of creating a culture of violence, which permits the destruction of others’ lives. When a useful target has been identified as a threat, narratives can demonize and dehumanize the outspoken, would-be reformer.

Leaders do not like critics. Freedom of Speech, Freedom of the Press, and Freedom of Religion are perennial threatening alternative pathways to the plans of those in power.

Death and destruction take different forms in different nations. 

Sometimes the followers of Jesus take up the cross and follow him to bring healing to troubled souls. Some Christians spread good news about joy, peace, and love.

Sometimes the followers of Jesus prefer to metaphorically crucify those who challenge their sacred beliefs and practises. Some enjoy humiliating those of a different religious group, political party, or national origin.

Sadly, some post stories and photos on social media to pour contempt on the views of those with different religious or political views. They gather crowds of sorts"followers" —especially when the opposing target can be mocked. And of course, the ability to incite people to commit acts of violence is because of human nature. Action-oriented people become emboldened when they believe the crowd is with them. 

Some people turn metaphors into reality. Whipped up people still issue death threats. And some targets require external boundaries if their discordant voices are to be heard another day.

Crowds can be encouraged to promote life or death.

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External Link to illustrations of the Crucifixion

Friday, February 1, 2019

Psychology of Religious Testimony


Religious testimonies are like stories of good news. We enjoy celebrating good news when we know the family. A recent study might explain a decline in public testimonies.

 Imagine visiting a group of Evangelical Christians who are about to study the Gospel of John. They sit on hard plastic chairs while chattering about the weather, problems at work, and some aggravating post on social media. At some point, a leader asks the group to share their news stories and prayer requests. They’ll pray before beginning their Bible study. One woman tells the details of a sister struggling with cancer—she’s not expected to live. There is a concerted sigh of sadness. A man mentions worries about finding work. Heads nod in sympathy. Someone makes a note. Then an excited woman has some good news. She has a large smile on her face as she announces, “We’re pregnant!” She’s gesturing to her husband whose grin widens as his face reddens in response to all the attention. Smiles spread around the group. The good news lightens the mood. Eventually, the long list of pain and suffering dominates the prayer.

In decades past, Pentecostals stood in worship services to share their testimonies of what God had done for them. The spiritual stories were often about recovering from an illness or someone getting converted. Others reported finding work or another life blessing. In recent years, Pentecostals and other evangelicals are likely to share their good and bad news in small group meetings like the fictional example above.

The psychology of testimonies is related to the psychology of emotion and something psychologists call symhedonia, which contrasts with sympathy. Edward Royzman and Paul Rozin of the University of Pennsylvania found that unlike our capacity to respond with sympathy toward people who have experienced tragedy—even people who are strangers, it is more difficult to share in a celebration of joy (that is symhedonia) unless we have an emotional connection to the one reporting the joyful experience.

The finding by Royzman and Rozin (2006) fits well with the shift in testimonies. Praying for people with various needs continues in services large and small. It is easy to respond to troubling experiences. But those old services where people stood up and shared personal good news have largely been replaced in large congregations by sharing stories in small groups. This makes sense. The personal connections in small groups not only enhance compassion but they also increase the experience of joy. 

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It’s hard to have a close connection with hundreds of people in mega-congregations. Sympathetic responses still evoke compassion. But small groups have the edge when it comes to testimonies of joy.

Reference


Royzman, E. B., & Rozin, P. (2006). Limits of symhedonia: The differential role of prior emotional attachment in sympathy and sympathetic joy. Emotion6(1), 82-93. doi:10.1037/1528-3542.6.1.82


Tuesday, January 15, 2019

The Noble Shepherd and the Psychology of Shame

Sheep by the WWI trenches at the Newfoundland memorial, France
October 2018/ Geoff W. Sutton
The characteristics of the Good Shepherd are known to readers of the Hebrew Bible and the Christian New Testament. Good Shepherds are men of honor—men who protect their flocks. Christians continue to tell their children the story of the shepherd boy David who became King of Israel and an ancestor of Jesus, that Noble Shepherd found in the gospel story (John Chapter 10).

Two months ago, at 11:00 am on 11 November, 2018 I stood at the Cenotaph, a memorial in London honoring those who sacrificed their lives in the Great War, one hundred years ago. It is an annual event here and among the allies who fought together in 1914-1918 and again in World War II.

Cenotaph Memorial, London, 2018/ Geoff W Sutton

In times of war, governments call men and women into service. They are sent to carry out a task. We remember those who fought the good fight. Those that died while serving are especially honored with prayers, words of praise, and bowed heads. And people of many faiths remember the dead with symbols of their faith like the crosses Christians place in cemeteries and upon numerous monuments like those I saw along the Western Front in Belgium and France.

I use the term Noble Shepherd instead of the more familiar Good Shepherd because I think Jerome Neyrey (2001) makes a good case that John is contrasting the noble and worthy life and death of Jesus with the shamefulness of those who claimed to shepherd Israel in the first century.

Cultures of Honor

The prevailing themes of a culture of honor evident in the Scriptures, are still part of many contemporary cultures. In a classic set of laboratory experiments, Dov Cohen and his colleagues studied the response of young men from America’s South. When insulted, these college men were far quicker than those from the North to respond with anger. Their quicker response was even evident in levels of testosterone and cortisol reflecting a readiness for aggression and a state of arousal. The men from the South behaved boldly even when confronting a research assistant who stood 6 foot, 3 inches tall and weighed 250 pounds.

The scientists interpreted their findings in terms of a history of emigration from the herding cultures in Britain to the southern U.S. states. Those remote British places were beyond the reach of officers who might enforce protection laws. It was up to local shepherds to protect their flocks and their families from marauders. And that shepherding protectionism remained with them in their New World culture.

Noble shepherds defend their families. Like good soldiers, good shepherds may be called on to sacrifice their lives. Not to do so, brings shame and dishonor to the shepherd and his family. A culture of honor includes a culture of shame. A noble life includes an honorable death. In the gospel, the author frames Jesus' life and death in terms of a culture of honor--his life is not taken from him but, like a soldier, he chooses to sacrifice for God and his people.

Of course, Jesus also identified shameful conduct of robbing and stealing to which we could add the shame and destruction of life that results from sexual abuse. All must be aware of toxic behavior patterns (naricissism, psychopathy, machiavellianism) of those hired to be shepherds (Sutton, 2018).

Voice Recognition and Adult-Child Attachment

In John’s Gospel, Jesus makes a point about his sheep recognizing his voice. Those familiar with human-animal interactions understand the metaphor. The fascinating concept of imprinting studied by the Austrian scientist Konrad Lorenz has been cited by many. Newly hatched fowl follow the nearest being whether it is a human or a member of their own species. In one report, Lorenz even quacked like a duck. The ducks knew his voice!

Jesus spoke of a close connection between the shepherd and the sheep. The sheep are safe with the shepherd whether they are going out to pasture or coming in at night. The iconic works of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth are known to students who take an Introduction to Psychology course. Human and animal infants and their parents form a strong attachment, which is important to life itself. Those without a nurturing attachment die or suffer severely when there is a separation. Clinicians who work for courts in child custody cases are familiar with the quality of parent-child attachment as an important consideration when thinking about the best interests of the child.

Since the early work, with humans and animals, psychology of religion researchers like Kilpatrick (See 2014 post for more) found similar attachments between people of faith and God. A healthy relationship with God is marked by closeness and feelings of security, which are protective during troublesome times.

The Noble Shepherd Examined

In the text about the Noble or Good Shepherd, Jesus is on trial. The interrogation, which began in Chapter 9 continues. His inquisitors push to see how far Jesus will go in claiming authority that exceeds that of the local religious leaders. It turns out Jesus is not reticent about claiming an equal standing with God, which the accusers count as blasphemy. Like men of honor everywhere, they are ready to defend their faith. But before they throw stones, he artfully asks them to identify the good works worthy of such punishment. These judges sidestep the works-as-evidence-defense and focus on Jesus’ verbal claims of equality with God. Next, Jesus offers a very odd quote, which has occupied religious people for centuries. In verses 34-36, Jesus refers to Psalm 82

“Is it not written in your Law, ‘I said, you are gods’? If he called them gods to whom the word of God came—and Scripture cannot be broken— do you say of him whom the Father consecrated and sent into the world, ‘You are blaspheming’, because I said, ‘I am the Son of God’?

Again, I draw on the insights of Neyrey to connect Psalm 82 to what happened at Sinai when God gave the people of Israel the Torah. Obedience to the Word of God was the path to life but disobedience would bring death. That reminded me of the first temptation of humans who disobeyed, despite the penalty of death, by eating forbidden fruit when told they would be like God. At Sinai the people would also be like gods having life rather than death if they chose to obey the God-given path. Recall that John opened his gospel with Jesus as the Word of God who, like the Torah at Sinai, was sent to offer life to the children of Israel. Once again, God offers his word, but this time his consecrated messenger is a Son of Man and Son of God.

Good Works & Noble Lives: A Concluding Note

I understand the traditional Christian message of the past 500 years that salvation is not by works. However, I cannot help but notice Jesus' reference to good works as a testimony to who he is and what he was about. The law as interpreted by the religious leaders of his day kept people in metaphorical chains. They were not even free to do good deeds on the Sabbath Day. Jesus clearly saw the principles of goodness in the law when he explained the Sabbath was made for man. When good laws are enforced, people feel safe from those who rob and kill and otherwise behave unjustly and even shamefully. There is a need for justice for those who are most vulnerable in society (see Psalm 82). But when those who only read texts for rules instead of for principles, and fail to think how their interpretation of old texts or laws actually contradict the spirit of the law, or the Spirit of the Divine Lawgiver, people hurt, suffer, and die.

I began this post by focusing on the concept of a Noble Shepherd and Cultures of Honor throughout history. I mentioned the memorial event of 11 November 2018 during which those of us present, like the blind man of Chapter 9, bowed our heads to honor those deserving honor. But there is another comparison I should like to make. Jesus says the Noble Shepherd lays down his life for the sheep. He has a choice but he is bound by honor to die if needed. And his death brings life.  The warriors who die protecting their families at home are worthy of honor. “Lest we forget,” we say as year after year we keep their memories alive. 

Like a soldier who abandons his post, Jesus could have avoided the cross by keeping quiet about injustice and spiritual abuse. Instead, he kept up the constant attacks on the harmful teachers of his day. Eventually, they found a way to kill him. Jesus, the Noble Shepherd, chose the path that led to death but paradoxically, it was also the path that led to life.

Notes and References

Attachment theory. See this 2014 post for more on attachment theory, attachment to God, and references to scholarly works.

Culture of Honor. Here’s the link to the Culture of Honor study by Cohen and colleagues (1996).

Dedication. I couldn’t help but notice the setting in verse 22. Jesus and his accusers are at the Temple for the Feast of Dedication (aka, Hanukkah), which is also known as the Festival of Lights. The celebration remembers the cleansing, dedication, and consecration of the Second Temple following the desecration by the Seleucids (National Geographic). The parallels to the life and death of Jesus suggest the Feast of Dedication may not be an accidental inclusion on the part of the gospel author, who likely wrote after the destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. The Roman Empire’s influence may also be a factor in Jesus' oblique answers to some challenges.

Demons and Insanity.  In verses 20-21, the Jews wonder about Jesus' sanity and the role of the demonic. Religious people continue to wonder about mental health and the connection to supernatural evil. Since it was only a brief reference, which they dismissed based on Jesus’ good works, I decided not to pursue the matter in this post. Nevertheless, demons lurk in the background of many Christians and people of other religions. Through the centuries, people with unusual experiences have suffered considerable torture and discrimination when their behavior seemed strange. There is much education and work needed by those involved in pastoral care, pastoral counseling, and religious or spiritual counseling to understand the cultural beliefs of people with mental illness and their families. Spiritual competency includes an understanding of a person’s supernatural worldview.

Hearing voices.   In discussing the voice recognition of the sheep in this chapter, a Christian with a history of hearing voices told me he was better able to deal with the voices in his head after conversion. Recognizing the source of one’s voices may be helpful to others struggling to ignore auditory hallucinations.

Identity Theory.  I discussed this in my previous post about Chapter 9 so I have not repeated the comments here. Clearly, the author continues to reveal aspects of Jesus identity, which rise to a high point in the claim, Son of God.

Neyrey: See the following two articles if you want a more in-depth analysis of the translation of the Greek word kalos. There is more than one Greek word translated as good

Neyrey, J. H. (2001). The “noble shepherd” in John 10: cultural and rhetorical background. Journal of Biblical Literature, 120(2), 267–291. Retrieved from https://0-search-ebscohost-com.swan.searchmobius.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0000064269&site=ehost-live

Neyrey, J. H. (1989). “I said, you are gods”: Psalm 82:6 and John 10. Journal of Biblical Literature108(4), 647–663. Retrieved from https://0-search-ebscohost-com.swan.searchmobius.org/login.aspx?direct=true&db=rfh&AN=ATLA0000822052&site=ehost-live

Shame. Shame is a pervasive self-evaluative emotional state. People display shame in a slumped body posture with their heads down and avoiding eye-contact. They may express the wish to die or disappear (See Psychology of Shame).

Shameful shepherds. Much has been written about the shameful behavior of clergy toward children and other parishioners. In addition to the horrific stories of sexual and other forms of physical abuse with the accompanying psychological scars, Christians suffer spiritual abuse.  Moreover, the shameful abuse did not end with the local shepherds but was worsened by those tasked with overseeing the abusive shepherds.  In addition, there are numerous reports of sexual assault and harassment of women by male clergy accompanied by a silent cover-up and victim blaming.  The whole matter of sexual, psychological, and spiritual abuse by clergy and Christian leaders deserves attention by religious and secular leaders. (I cover related issues in A House Divided and various articles—see ResearchGate or Academia).

All clergy and congregants need to be aware of the destructive personality traits that can harm a congregation. Learn more about Psychology's Toxic Triad: Narcissism, Psychopathy, and Machiavellianism (Sutton, 2018).

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