Friday, June 27, 2014



Brian D. McLaren has connected with many Christians disenchanted with the rhetoric of fundamentalist leaders. What caught my attention in a recent post was his comment about the “…huge personal cost for religious leaders to change their position…” He was referring to a talk he gave at the White House related to human rights for LGBT persons.

Of course, LGBT issues are front and center nowadays but the concept of costs is important to other religious issues as well. (The forum took place this week.)

Mariam Yehya is a Sudanese Christian woman who refused to renounce her Christian faith. She was imprisoned and sentenced to die after she gave birth. Her child was born. She was released but then arrested at the airport as she attempted to leave with her family. Now she is at the U.S. Embassy. What will happen? Her conversion to Christianity has already been costly. But she would not renounce her beliefs. She was willing to die. See the CNN story:  "I will leave it to God," she said. "I didn't even have a chance to see my family when I got out of prison."

On March 26, 2014, World Vision USA learned the cost of changing their policy to accommodate LGBT employees who are married. Some Christian leaders complained and advocated canceling commitments to support the children and the organization. In a day, more than 2,000 children lost support. World Vision soon reversed their policy and offered an apology. Some leaders offered their approval of the reversal. See Rachel Held Evans for a summary. See my post for a look at the morality issue.

Trapped clergy is the subject of a recent book about clergy who have lost their faith but feel unable to be honest about their beliefs because they would lose their jobs as well as family and friends. I posted a note on this 2013 book earlier this year.

Pastor Rob Bell founded Mars Hill Bible Church congregation in 1999. He wrote Love Wins in 2011. Rob had changed his beliefs-- he didn’t see hell in the afterlife. 1,000 people left the church. Rob stepped down – not knowing what was next. You can get details in the New Yorker story.

Ted talks about his crisis and the personal cost. Rev. Ted Haggard paid a huge price for his wrongdoing in 2006. He confessed to a sexually immoral act and a drug purchase. “He got what he deserved,” some would say. He lost his job and was forced out of state. He tells his own story on his new website.

It’s not all about Christianity of course. It’s just that in a fairly open society that’s full of high cost religion -- like the U.S. -- we get news when people share controversial opinions. People react quickly. Emotion-driven righteous indignation floods social media. Things happen. And some people pay big for what they say—unless they are quickly embraced by a new religious tribe.


Titanic experiences. I wrote about this cost phenomenon in a previous context. The principle of sunk costs applies to a lot of problems people face when their beliefs no longer jibe with those who control their lives. Many people make heavy investments in their faith. To give up their church life involves a great personal cost. It’s not just about the money. People risk losing family members and friends—maybe for the rest of their lives. And people risk losing their identity. In a culture of honor, people go down with their ship.

A religious life can be like a Titanic voyage.

Just like in the financial world, people struggling with failing belief systems double down. Struggling Christians invest copious amounts of time, and even money, as if a greater investment would resurrect a dying belief. A new church, a new book, a new conference, a new pastor, a new awakening-- something to redeem the loss. It's hard to move on.

Integrity. I recall a fundamentalist pastor telling me of his dilemma regarding his child’s wedding where there would be dancing and alcohol—two things he had preached against his entire career. “How can I…” Change is difficult for those who value integrity. Some want to practice what they preach. Not all pastors are hypocrites.

Different spaces. I don't think every Christian who rejects changes in laws that discriminate against women, sexual minorities, or health care are mean spirited and hateful. Some are of course. I think others would like to be more welcoming but they can't stretch their beliefs far. In his post, Brian refers to four spaces. They may not be scientific but they seem useful-- at least as hypotheses. Take a look.

Religious people can be in different spaces when it comes to change.

Money. Employers control the lives of most employees and their families. There is a real economic cost involved in expressing a change in beliefs—especially for those earning high salaries at megachurches, at the upper range of a church hierarchy, or as a leader in a religious organization. To be sure, there are psychological costs too but real money can weigh heavily in favor of keeping true beliefs under wraps.

 Money buys silence.

Exodus. For those that set aside their beliefs, a grieving process ensues. Those who move on when they are past middle-age leave a part of themselves behind. It’s not as easy as putting off an old coat and putting on a new one. People look back a lot. Rarely is an exodus without pain. Not all of childhood religion is bad. It costs to move on.

Cutting losses. For some, coming out (from childhood religious beliefs) or moving on is a relief. "Good riddance," some say. I wonder if they will regret the move later. It’s hard to put the toothpaste back in the tube. Cutting your losses is a way of coping with a bad investment- or- a good investment that went bad.

The truth shall set you free.

I remember a man telling me that he was an ardent believer in creationism until one day it just did not make sense. He literally burned the creationist’s books when he embraced evolution. He was angry. Time and money wasted. It’s not something he talks about anymore. Just not interested. He’s moved one. Burning books is so symbolic-- a lot like burning bridges to the past.

There are lots of stories in the news of Christians leaving church or leaving fundamentalist faiths and joining the progressive movement. To use McLaren’s words, there is a quest for a generous orthodoxy. Fundamentalists will always be around. It's part of human nature. But.

Nudging a religious leader toward peaceful rhetoric space may be possible if costs can be reduced.

What space are you in- about any moral or social issue?

How do you cope with the pressure to keep silent about a change in beliefs?

More Psychology of Religion

Amazon Author page Geoffrey W. Sutton

BUY A HOUSE DIVIDED from the publisher

GET a free copy of A House Divided if you are an instructor or book reviewer. Contact the publisher:  PICKWICK  a brand of WIPFand STOCK

Nothing in this blog should be considered personal advice or a psychological consultation.

Friday, June 20, 2014

Forgiveness & Psychotherapy Fad or Science?

     Is forgiveness just a fad?

“You need to forgive him,” the counselor said as he pointed to the Bible and quoted Jesus threat linked command. “But if you do not forgive men their trespasses, neither will your Father forgive your trespasses.” (Matthew 6:15)

It’s easy to see why forgiveness is a popular topic in Christian literature. It is after all at the heart of the gospel. And it is a command. Although some interpretations have led to much distress for those who fear forgiving will only encourage evildoers to continue to abuse their victims.

A few posts ago I began looking at the evidence supporting Christian Counseling and Psychotherapy. This is a post related to that quest.

In the past two decades, psychological scientists have tested forgiveness interventions and found evidence that many people are able to forgive their offenders and experience an inner sense of peace and relief from distressing symptoms.

Forgiveness has been linked to better general health and mental health. Here’s two examples.
Self-forgiveness was related to better physical health for adults (Toussaint and others, 2001).
People who required offenders to satisfy a demand were at higher risk for mortality than people who forgave unconditionally (Toussaint and others, 2012).


Julia E. M. Kidwell and Nathaniel G. Wade recently (2013) reviewed evidence of forgiveness interventions. They cite several studies documenting the effectiveness of forgiveness interventions for clients drawn from general samples and those who identified as Christian.

The authors specifically identified studies showing the effectiveness of the REACH model developed by Ev Worthington, Jr. of Virginia Commonwealth University. In addition to its effectiveness with students, the model has been studied in adult samples within the United States and other countries. Counseling resources can be found on Ev Worthington's web page.

I have presented forgiveness interventions in Pentecostal Churches and found a warm reception to Worthington's REACH model. I have also found them open to participating in research related to forgiveness and restoration (References below: Mittlestadt & Sutton, 2010; Sutton, 2010).


There are several forgiveness models that have been found to be effective for clients regardless of religious tradition or no tradition.

Robert D. Enright offers “A Step-by-Step Process for Resolving Anger and Restoring Hope” in his 2001 book, Forgiveness is a Choice, which is published by the American Psychological Association. It is actually a self-help book. He divides the forgiving process into four phases each having multiple steps. Enright and his colleagues have published results supporting the effectiveness of his model. See below for a reference to his book and links to videos.

As mentioned above, Ev L. Worthington, Jr. has developed and tested a five step model using the acronym REACH. The model is presented in a way that would be suitable for any client regardless of religious tradition or no tradition but Worthington has specifically written articles and a book to explain how the model fits with Christian theology. He also includes specific interventions accommodating Christian beliefs and practice. See below for a link to videos by Worthington and references to his books.

There are other models. For example, Fred Luskin has a model. I have included a video by Luskin in the link to videos below.


Forgiveness counseling may not be the reason someone got better.
Improvement following a forgiveness intervention is not evidence to support the effectiveness of the forgiveness intervention.  One of the great things about counseling and psychotherapy is the importance of relationship. Just talking with a kind and accepting person who offers undivided attention and confidentiality can be very helpful. If you add a placebo effect to the relationship, a lot of people may benefit from a few visits. And one more thing—add the value of the time effect to the placebo effect and the relationship effect. People often feel better when they get some distance (read time) from a distressing event. For forgiveness interventions and any other interventions to be effective, they should add value above that accounted for by time, placebo effects, and a warm and accepting relationship.

Forgiveness is not a panacea.
Although many people do indeed benefit from forgiving those who have offended them, forgiveness may not be the most pressing need for a person seeking psychotherapy. For example, if a client was sexually assaulted as a youth, the person may experience symptoms of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, including a common co-occurring persistent depression years later. And forgiveness may be an important intervention. But it does not mean that working through a forgiveness intervention will relieve the symptoms of PTSD or Depression. On the other hand, forgiveness may be helpful at a later stage in treatment. Psychological scientists and experienced clinicians know this but I fear many clinicians just jump on a band wagon and use their newly found forgiveness tool (sorry about the mixed metaphor).

Forgiveness and reconciliation are still confusing ideas.
Despite the efforts of psychological scientists and clinicians to separate forgiveness from reconciliation, people still link the two ideas. I suspect the reason for the confusion is the fact that we often need to get along with the people who hurt us. In everyday experience, when we forgive someone it is usually in the context of a relationship such as in a marriage or at work. 

It is however important to keep the concepts of forgiveness and reconciliation separate when serious offenses have happened. Recommending a woman return and reconcile with her abusive husband can be a disaster. And disastrous consequences can happen in any situation when people believe they must live their lives as victims of abuse if they are to forgive the abuser.

The idea of forgiving a dead offender can help some people see the difference between forgiveness and reconciliation. A person can reach the point of forgiving a person who hurt them years ago. But if that person is dead, there is no reconciliation possible.

Forgiveness may or may not be a Christian Counseling Intervention
The scientific evidence supports the beneficial effects of forgiveness interventions in counseling. The existing models have been effective with Christian and non-Christian clients. It makes sense that a Christian client would feel more comfortable working through forgiveness with a Christian counselor who was comfortable citing relevant scriptures and praying for God’s grace to assist in the often difficult process; however, the interventions that have scientific support are not presented as Christian per se. Rather, they may be called religious accommodative or more specifically, Christian-accommodative. The distinction does not matter to many who care about what works. And as long as an intervention does not attempt to upset or destroy one’s religious beliefs, what’s the harm? Nevertheless, some Christians are wary about counseling that is not strictly biblical counseling or developed as a specifically Christian intervention.


Forgiveness is not reconciliation.

Forgiveness is not a panacea.

Forgiveness is not the treatment of choice for PTSD and depression.

Forgiveness interventions offer an opportunity to consider the question,
 What does it mean to do Christian counseling?

The idea of forgiving a dead offender can help some people see the difference between forgiveness and reconciliation.



I have a Forgiveness Playlist on my YouTube page. The list includes talks and stories related to this post and others you may find interesting.


Enright, R. D. (2001). Forgiveness is a choice: A step-by-step process for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Kidwell, J.E.M. & Wade, N.G. (2013). Christian-accommodative group interventions to promote forgiveness for transgressions. In E. L. Worthington Jr., E. L. Johnson, J.N. Hook, & J.D. Aten (Eds.), Evidenced-based practices for Christian counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 325-346). Downers Grove, IL: CAPS/IVP Academic.

Mittelstadt, M. & G. W. Sutton (eds.) (2010) Forgiveness, reconciliation, and restoration: Multidisciplinary studies from a Pentecostal perspective. Eugene, OR: Pickwick Publications.

Sutton, G. W. (2010). The Psychology of Forgiveness, Reconciliation, and Restoration: Integrating Traditional and Pentecostal Theological Perspectives with Psychology. In M. Mittelstadt & G. W. Sutton (eds). Forgiveness, reconciliation, and restoration: Multidisciplinary studies from a Pentecostal perspective. Eugene, OR:
Pickwick Publications.
Amazon Kindle edition

 Toussaint, L. L., Owen, A.D., & Cheadle, A. (2012). Forgive to live: Forgiveness, Health, and Longevity, Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35, 375-386. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9362-4

Toussaint, L.L., Williams, D. R., Musick, M.A., & Everson, S.A. (2001). Forgiveness and health: Age differences in a U.S. probability sample. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 249-257. doi: 10.1023/A1011394629736

Worthington, E. L., Jr. (2006). Forgiveness and reconciliation: Theory and application. New York: Brunner-Routledge.

Worthington, E.L., Jr. (2003). Forgiving and reconciling: Bridges to wholeness and hope. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.

Friday, June 13, 2014

How can religious people cooperate rather than fight?

Can the religious be saved from tribal conflicts?

How can we escape from the tragedy of religious groups in conflict?

Killing, rape, and hate-filled-loud-angry-in-your-face verbal assaults routinely fill news headlines. And the sad thing is the link between these horrible acts and a religious tribe. Who would want to be a part of such a religion?

Fortunately, for most of the world, the combat is more subtle. It’s more about killing reputations, insisting that God wants you to live a miserable life, or splitting a group over moral clashes.

Understanding moral conflict is the quest of philosopher-psychologist Joshua Greene. I read his book Moral Tribes earlier this year and finally got round to writing a review. There are many ways to analyze his work. I’ll name just two.

1. People act before they think. For me, an intriguing part of the book is the way he weaves numerous experiments together to show the powerful influences of inner (think brain damage, disease) and outer events (numerous barely noticeable events) on moral judgments. Sanctimonious language is what we hear at rallies or read on placards or online flamesites. But a moral or immoral act often happens quickly. Acts of moral harm can be triggered by events outside the parameters of our brain’s ability to perceive and process information in sufficient time to apply the brakes. We all need time to think before firing moral missiles.

2. Metamorality is needed. Greene quests for a metamorality. Many will disagree with his answer, which is a refurbished, yet fairly argued consequentialism, he calls deep pragmatism (think Bentham and Mill). I’ll not dwell on the philosophy. Greene has a practical point. We need a metamorality to overcome the tribalism that continually fragments social groups (families, churches, organizations, nations) and often leads to murder or attempts to wipe out an entire tribe.

Morality and Religion

Greene’s book is not about religion per se —although he does refer to religion from time to time. My focus on the Psychology of Religion directs my attention to the painful wars between religious tribes. What’s to be done?

1. Promote interfaith prayer.
On 8 June 2014, Pope Francis met with Shimon Peres (Israeli President) and Mahmoud Abbas (Palestinian President). The focus was prayers for peace and they symbolically planted an olive tree. Perhaps this effort is doomed like many before. But thank God people are still willing to meet and give peace a try. Religion and politics mix around the world.

2. Expand common ground. 
In the U.S. religious leaders often argue over what makes their group distinctive as if selling a new tech product. I recall as a boy that some churches claimed to have the full gospel—a not so subtle dig at those who had only a partial gospel. And as a member of a small Protestant tribe it was common to hear attacks on Catholics- those idol worshipers- so called because of the images of the saints. Fortunately, I had wonderful Catholic cousins and we had no rules against idol-laden nativity scenes as did many conservatives in the 1950s.
Buddhism is the second largest faith behind Christianity in some Utah counties. Religious people, including Muslims, are finding common values centering on a family-friendly environment in many parts of Utah (Deseret News).

Nowadays, it’s common to find Catholics, Evangelicals, and Mormons working together to affirm shared moral virtues. Peace expands when religious leaders affirm common values rather than distinctives.

3. Cooperate on common causes
Following the Kenyan tribal massacre, I went with a friend to a refugee camp near Nairobi. The Red Cross was there with workers round the glove. Tents bore U.S. and U.K. flags. And an American Christian group, Convoy of Hope, handed out sacks of rice. Following tsunamis, hurricanes, tornadoes, fires, and bombings the relief arms of numerous religious groups reach out to offer shelter, medical care, food, water, and supplies. International efforts pool resources to help regardless of the religious affiliation of the needy. I mentioned two above: The Red Cross and Convoy of Hope. There’s World Vision and Red Crescent too along with numerous agencies tied to particular religious tribes.

4. Build a bigger tent.
In the U.S., it is still common for Americans to attend mostly white or mostly black churches. Christians were divided over slavery. And Christians maintain segregated churches. No government edicts force the mixing of people of colour in churches as happened in U.S. schools and workplaces. Religious freedom is only an abstraction for some.

Of course, nowadays it would be rare to find a U.S. Christian who wishes for a segregated church. They are more likely to want to encourage diversity. But it wasn’t always that way. Someone had to lead the faithful. It’s hard to believe that the Rev. Billy Graham took religious flak for inviting black ministers to join him on the platform and working to bring blacks and whites together in his meetings.

"When God looks at you, He doesn't look on the outward appearance," Graham said to the diverse crowd. "The Bible says He looks upon the heart."

Religious traditions can be a valuable way to sustain people during life’s tough times. And the familiar traditions of childhood may be more helpful than abandoning them for the sake of creating some megachurch without deep roots. I’m not about bashing traditions. But a big tent attitude can mean coming together for special events. Times to pray, share encouraging texts, and celebrate together—not just following disasters but more like community services at Easter for Christians. To use a psychologist’s phrase (Barbara Fredickson), we need to broaden and build on the positive, which has the potential to heal rather than destroy.

Christian activist Brian MacLaren invites religious people to endorse a Generous Orthodoxy. Of course, he takes flak too. Many fear giving up the truth. Many wonder what they have in common with other religious tribes. Fortunately, more and more people are finding ways to value their traditions and those of others.

5. Foster cooperation and compassion. 
If you are a leader and want to promote morality, you have several options. Cooperation can be induced by example and by focusing on the scriptures that illustrate charitable giving (see for example Rand et al., 2013). And forgiveness is a virtue that can lead to reconciliation.

Forgiveness is a process that is often hard to accomplish. Forgiveness heals the hurts of the past. Forgiveness pays big dividends for individuals and opens pathways for potential reconciliation. Apologies help. Christian churches in particular have a motivation to foster forgiveness because forgiveness is a commandment and not an option. Forgiveness is a relationship repair tool. And forgiveness between groups can occur as part of a reconciliation process. Warring tribes can learn to cooperate. But someone must step up to promote a course of forgiveness and reconciliation.

And back to a lesson from Greene's book, moral acts are often quick and under the radar of thought. We need time to think. Leaders especially need to consider the effects of moral missiles sent to the faithful and circulated on social media sites.

Quick Thoughts

Cooperation is at the heart of morality.

Morality, like spirituality, is relational.

Peace expands when religious leaders affirm common values rather than differences.

We all need time to think before firing moral missiles.

Forgiveness is a relationship repair tool.



Greene, J. (2013). Moral tribes: Emotion, reason, and the gap between us and them. New York: The Penguin Press.
My review of Moral Tribes has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Psychology and Christianity.

Friday, June 6, 2014

What in heaven’s name do Christian psychotherapists do?

What on earth are Christian psychotherapists doing?

What in heaven’s name do Christian psychotherapists do?

A Christian woman follows the recommendation of her doctor to see a counselor. Her friends advise her to see a Christian therapist. She shows up in the waiting area. What should she expect?

Most of us who work or have worked as psychotherapists are familiar with the fact that in the U.S. most people believe in God and most of them identify as Christian. A significant part of those prefer to obtain counseling or psychotherapy from a Christian psychotherapist. And they have many to choose from. But Christian psychotherapists are as diverse as people who identify as Christian.

Christian counselors range the full spectrum from conservative to liberal based on their church affiliation and their social values. Add to that conservative-liberal spectrum differences in faith practice by Catholics and Protestants. And if you consider Pentecostals and charismatics you can get an interesting mix of spiritual beliefs. Then there’s the Mormons—still suspect by some conservative groups but certainly invested in psychological research and interventions that integrate Christian spirituality.

The above mentioned variation in Christian faith should be enough to make clients wonder what they might experience when they get a Christian counselor or psychotherapist. But there’s more. So what if the therapist identifies as a Christian, what exactly will that Christian psychotherapist do in psychotherapy that’s different from what a secular psychotherapist does? And what if they were to be assigned to a psychotherapist from another faith—say Islam or Buddhist for example? Does faith make a difference when it comes to treating depression or anxiety?


There is not much research out there. In a book published last year, I came across a startling quote from the editors (Eric Johnson, Everett L. Worthington, Jr., Joshua N. Hook, and Jamie D. Aten) in a summary chapter:

 “…there is a good deal of confusion and little agreement in the field today regarding what exactly constitutes Christian psychotherapy and counseling (p. 337).”

The editors referred to a previous study from 2007. I looked up the article and found that the researchers looked at the effectiveness of Christian therapy in a sample of 51 therapists and 220 clients.

That’s not a lot of Christian therapists or clients but it is a start. And as an agency based field study the team was able to look at some detailed comparisons. Of course these scholars recognized the problems in identifying exactly what is Christian therapy. For the purposes of the study they considered two minimal criteria. The therapy was identified as Christian by the therapist or the agency and there was an intent to provide the client with a Christian therapist who shared a similar commitment to Christian beliefs.

Some findings
From the discussion on page 102:

“The results of the current study suggest that clients who seek and receive explicitly labeled Christian therapy, as well as those who seek and receive secular therapy, tend to feel close to their therapists and perceive therapy to be effective. Those clients who have strong religious commitments respond particularly well when therapists use discernible religious interventions.

But what did they do?

Well, the researchers asked about six interventions. Most agreed that knowing a client’s religious background was appropriate. The other five occurred less frequently for a secular counseling center compared to therapists at Christian Centers. But the interventions were broadly stated: Pray with a client, Pray privately for a client, Use religious language or concepts, recommend religious or spiritual books, and recommend clients participate in religion.


As I mentioned above, the study published in 2007 was referenced in the book of empirically based practice that was published near the end of 2013. The book contains several interventions that could be called Christian. But who uses them? Perhaps more important, who even knows about them? And how would psychotherapists learn about such interventions if they went to secular graduate programs?

The authors of the 2007 study note the value of religious commitment. That seems important to developing rapport. And religious commitment can be measured. Likely that would not be unique to Christian counselors though. I suspect highly committed Christians, Muslims, and Jews would also feel a closer connection to therapists who demonstrate a high commitment to their respective faith traditions.

Christian counseling just means you pray together and consult the Bible. Right?

I know there is more.

 But what on earth are Christian counselors doing?

Clearly it’s time for a lot more research. I and my colleague Chris Arnzen are in the process of collecting data from Christian Counselors and Psychotherapists (all related professions). We want to know what these therapists do and what they believe. We also want to know how they were educated – where did they get their degree and how did they learn about the Christian faith? A survey won’t answer all the questions but we think it’s a start.

Although many clinicians identify themselves as Christian, many are graduates from secular universities and professional schools. It is not clear how much they know about Christianity or explicitly Christian interventions. Also, many enter two-year Master’s Degree Christian counselor preparation programs with little or no coursework in biblical studies yet they are expected to integrate their faith with their counseling practice.

If Christian counseling means something unique, then people need to know what that is.

For those of you who do not know the mental health professions, I’ll offer a quick overview. A Master’s degree is the basic entry degree for counselors and psychotherapists, including Social Workers. Those degrees often take up to two years and students take somewhere between 50 and 65 credit hours, which includes supervised experiences. Before getting a license for independent practice, they must pass a national test and have post-degree supervision from an approved supervisor. A common minimal standard to become a professional counselor in the U.S. is 60 graduate hours covering a defined set of objectives. Psychologists usually have some 120 graduate hours and usually have two years of supervised experience.

In future posts, I will cover some of the strategies that might be considered Christian. So, stay tuned. For now, if you plan to see a Christian Counselor or Psychotherapist because you have specific expectations, it might be good to find out what that person believes and how she/he understands Christian counseling.

Meanwhile, if you know of a Christian Counselor, Social Worker, or Psychologist do refer them to me to complete our survey so we can better understand what it means to be a Christian Counselor or Psychotherapist.

Research Contact for the counselor survey:
Provide an email in the comment section;
by email or on

Related post


Johnson, E.L., Worthington, E.L. Jr., Hook, J.N., & Aten, J.D. (2013). Evidenced-based practice in light of the Christian traditions: Reflections and future directions. E. L. Worthington Jr., E. L. Johnson, J.N. Hook, & J.D. Aten (Eds.), Evidenced-based practices for Christian counseling and psychotherapy (pp. 325-346). Downers Grove, IL: CAPS/IVP Academic.

Wade, N.G., Worthington, E.L., Jr., & Vogel, D.L. (2007). Effectiveness of religiously-tailored
interventions in Christian therapy. Psychotherapy Research, 17, 91-105.